Professional Driver Nerve Injury Study
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Results
The 740 professional drivers drove an average of 3126 miles per week. They had been driving professionally for an average of 15.8 years.

At the time the 740 drivers were given their Qwi™ Professional Driving Gloves, 437 (59.1%) complained of having hand pain and 527 (71.2%) complained of having
hand numbness while driving. 373 (50.4%) drivers described having hand pain and numbness while 591 (79.9%) drivers described having hand pain or numbness.
Symptoms were present in only the right hands of 95 (12.8%) drivers, in only the left hand in 92 (12.4%) drivers, and in both hands in 329 (44.5%) drivers. 224
(30.2%) of drivers said that they did not experience pain or numbness in either hand.

248 (33.5%) of drivers said that all of the fingers of their right hand were painful and/or numb. 247 (33.4%) of drivers said that all of the fingers of their left hand were
painful and/or numb. 120 (16.2%) of drivers had symptoms involving only the right median nerve distribution defined as pain or numbness affecting the right thumb,
index, and long fingers. 24 (3.2%) of drivers had symptoms involving only the right ulnar nerve as defined as pain or numbness affecting the right small finger.

100 (13.5%) of drivers had symptoms involving only the left median nerve distribution defined as pain or numbness affecting the left thumb, index, and long fingers.
39 (5.3%) of drivers had symptoms involving only the left ulnar nerve as defined as pain or numbness affecting the left small finger. The numbers of drivers having
symptoms involving only median or only ulnar nerve distributions would have been higher if the ring finger was included in the analysis. But, the ring finger was
excluded from the analysis since one half of the ring finger is typically innervated by the median nerve while its other half is innervated by the ulnar nerve.

Drivers experiencing right hand symptoms indicated that the symptoms had been present for an average of 54.1 months at the time they were given their Qwi™
Professional Driving Gloves. Drivers with left hand symptoms described their symptoms as having been present for 57.9 months. 38.3% (282/736 replies) of drivers
indicated that hand pain /numbness affected their driving. 2.7% (20/731 replies) of drivers said that they missed work because of hand pain/numbness.

17 (2.3%) of drivers indicated that they had been formerly been diagnosed as having right hand carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). 6 (0.8%) of drivers had been
diagnosed as having left CTS. 25 (3.4%) of drivers had been diagnosed as having bilateral CTS.

4 (0.5%) of drivers had undergone isolated right carpal tunnel release (CTR) and 5 (0.7%) of drivers had undergone bilateral CTR. No drivers had undergone
isolated left CTR.

Nerve conduction tests were performed on the hands of 97 drivers. Results were recorded for right and left hands. Median nerve motor distal latency greater than or
equal to 4.2 msec was considered abnormal. Median nerve sensory distal latency greater than or equal to 3.1 msec was considered abnormal. These median nerve
abnormalities at the wrist are consistent with a diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Ulnar nerve motor distal latency greater than or equal to 3.7 msec was
considered abnormal. Ulnar nerve sensory distal latency greater than or equal to 3.1 msec was considered abnormal. These ulnar nerve abnormalities at the wrist
are consistent with a diagnosis of Guyon’s canal syndrome.

In the right hands, 2/4 (50%) of median motor and 23/46 (50%) of median sensory distal latencies were prolonged. In the right hands, 0/4 (0%) of ulnar motor and
7/45 (15.6%) of ulnar sensory distal latencies were prolonged.

In the left hands, 5/7 (71.4%) of median motor and 15/35 (42.9%) of median sensory distal latencies were prolonged. In the right hands, 1/7 (14.3%) of ulnar motor
and 6/32 (18.8%) of ulnar sensory distal latencies were prolonged.

Analysis of combined data for both right and left hands indicated that 7/11 (63.75%) of median motor and 38/81 (46.9%) of median sensory distal latencies were
prolonged. 1/11 (9.1%) of ulnar motor and 13/7 7 (16.9%) of ulnar sensory distal latencies were prolonged.

The subset of symptomatic drivers having abnormal nerve conduction tests was analyzed. The following results are based upon the combined data for both right and
left hands:
1.        Drivers with prolonged median motor distal latencies: 4/7 (57.1%) of drivers with abnormal test results had hand pain. Of these drivers, 3/4 (75%) experienced
pain relief with an average of 61.7% pain reduction. 6/7 (85.7%) of drivers with abnormal test results had hand numbness. Of these drivers, 3/6 (50%) had relief of
numbness with an average of 61.7% numbness reduction.
2.        Drivers with prolonged median sensory distal latencies: 24/38 (63.2%) of drivers with abnormal test results had hand pain. Of these drivers, 12/24 (50%) had
pain relief with an average of 62.9% pain reduction. 37/38 (97.4%) of these drivers had hand numbness. Of these drivers, 12/37 (32.4%) had numbness relief with an
average 66.1% numbness reduction.
3.        Drivers with prolonged ulnar motor distal latencies: 1/1 (100%) of drivers with abnormal results had hand pain. Of these drivers, 0/1 (0%) had pain relief. 1/1
(100%) of drivers with abnormal results had hand numbness. 0/1 (0%) of these drivers experienced numbness relief.
4.        Drivers with prolonged ulnar sensory distal latencies: 7/13 (53.8%) of drivers with abnormal results had hand pain. Of these drivers 4/7 (57.1%) had pain relief
with an average 68.8% numbness reduction. 12/13 (92.3%) of drivers with abnormal results had hand numbness. Of these drivers, 5/12 (41.7%) had numbness
relief with an average 68.5% numbness reduction.

Followup data was available for 439 professional drivers either from post card questionnaires or by telephone contact. Of these 439 drivers, 291 drivers had
indicated on their initial questionnaire that they were experiencing hand numbness before wearing the Qwi™ Professional Driving Gloves. Of these 291 drivers, 222
(76.3%) indicated that they had experienced numbness relief after wearing the Qwi™ Professional Driving Gloves for one month. They indicated that they
experienced an average of 60.5% reduction of their pre-existing numbness as a result of wearing the Qwi™ Professional Driving Gloves.

Of the 439 drivers with followup data, 233 drivers had indicated on their initial questionnaire that they were experiencing hand pain before wearing the Qwi™
Professional Driving Gloves. Of these 233 drivers, 181 (77.7%) indicated that they had experienced pain relief after wearing the Qwi™ Professional Driving Gloves for
one month. They indicated that they experienced an average of 59.0% reduction of their pre-existing pain as a result of wearing the Qwi™ Professional Driving Gloves.

Discussion
The frequency of hand pain and numbness in professional truck drivers was much higher than we initially anticipated. Prior to this study, we estimated that
approximately 10-20% of professional truck drivers suffer from hand pain and numbness. Results of the current study indicate that 59% of drivers had hand pain and
71% had hand numbness while driving. Pain/numbness affected both hands in 45% of drivers. One-third of drivers said that they experienced pain/numbness in all
of the fingers of their affected hand(s).

More detailed analysis of the distribution of the drivers’ hand pain and numbness indicates that about 15% of drivers had median nerve involvement and about 4% of
drivers had ulnar nerve involvement. These numbers may actually be artificially too low because of the way the analysis was conducted (as described in Results).

Drivers reported that pain/numbness had been present for an average of 54 months in their right hand and 58 months in their left hand. This indicates that
symptoms of nerve irritation in professional drivers’ hands are not a transient phenomenon. Long-standing symptoms as reported by these drivers can result in
significant and potentially permanent hand nerve injury. This consideration appears to be borne out by the findings of median and ulnar nerve dysfunction observed
on nerve conduction studies in this group of drivers. Sensory abnormalities were much more common than motor abnormalities for both median and ulnar nerves.
Drivers with abnormal median and ulnar nerve conduction test results had a high incidence of hand pain (61.0%) and numbness (94.9%).

Besides causing personal discomfort, nerve injury in professional drivers can be associated with significant costs. It is estimated that a case of carpal tunnel
syndrome requiring carpal tunnel release surgery results in direct expenses of $8,763 (
Figure 3). This cost calculation does not include expense associated with a
potential increase in workers compensation insurance premium. It also does not include a dollar value associated with the negative impact on an individual or
company resulting from a driver’s inability to work or working less efficiently due to hand nerve injury. These negative impacts on a business can include the cost of
hiring temporary help, lost sales, overtime costs for other staff to cover the injured worker’s work load, and scheduling difficulties.

Professional truck drivers having pain and numbness reported symptom improvement after wearing Qwi™ Professional Driving Gloves for one month. Of the drivers
having hand pain/numbness (all drivers including those having abnormal NCS results), 76% experienced numbness relief and 77% experienced pain relief
associated with wearing these gloves. These drivers indicated that they experienced 61% reduction in their pre-existing numbness and 59% reduction in their pre-
existing pain after wearing the Qwi™ Professional Driving Gloves. Numerous truck drivers also tried wearing their Qwi™ Professional Driving Gloves while riding
their motorcycles and found that the gloves to be effective in relieving hand pain and numbness. Many of these drivers asked for a motorcycle glove incorporating
Qwi™ Nerve Protection Pads.

Some drivers had already sustained severe enough nerve injury that they had abnormal nerve conduction tests at the beginning of this study. Even in this group of
drivers, 52.8% (19/36) experienced pain relief (64.5% pain reduction) and 35.7% (20/56) experienced numbness relief (65.4% numbness reduction) after wearing
Qwi™ Professional Driving Gloves for one month. The percentage of pain and numbness reduction is comparable to that achieved amongst the overall study group.
But, fewer of these drivers with abnormal nerve conduction tests experienced pain and numbness relief compared with the overall study group.

Summary
Hand pain and numbness due to median and ulnar nerve injury is much more common in professional truck drivers than previously thought. 59% of drivers had
hand pain and 71% had hand numbness while driving. 38% of drivers said that hand pain/numbness affected their driving. Some drivers even demonstrated nerve
abnormalities on nerve conduction testing. Hand nerve injury in professional drivers can be an expensive problem to treat. After one month of wearing Qwi™
Professional Driving Gloves, 76% of symptomatic drivers experienced numbness relief (61% numbness reduction) and 77% experienced pain relief (59% pain
reduction). Even drivers initially documented to have abnormal median and ulnar nerve conduction testing experienced 65% reduction of hand pain and numbness,
although a smaller percentage noted improvement compared with the overall study group. This study documents the effectiveness of Qwi™ Professional Driving
Gloves in the treatment of hand pain and numbness due to median and ulnar nerve injury amongst professional drivers. Numerous truck drivers also found that the
nerve protection pads in Qwi™ Professional Driving Gloves were effective when they rode their motorcycles.


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